|Sažetak (engleski)|| |
Over the past few decades, the world has undergone significant changes that are mainly caused by human activity. These changes are usually reflected positively on the standard of living of a large number of people, while at the same time the environmental situation grew worse. People in different ways perceive the environment they belong to, because it is conditioned by their primary and secondary needs. This can be clarified on the example of modern society, but also a number of communities in the past. If living space is abundant in natural resources of drinking water and a variety of other resources (eg. wood, stone, etc.) society sees it affirmatively because it provides them with the most necessary resources to carry out normal daily activities and meeting basic needs. This means that the community should not greatly modify the environment in order to enhance their living conditions. In short, the modern state of the environment is the result of the human desire to fulfill all needs. Object of research are contemporary environmental changes of Dalmatian central coast and its transformation and degradation under the influence of modern geographic processes, especially littoralization, simultaneous and often interrelated deagrarization, urbanization and apartmanization. Originally investigate how natural and geographical factors and processes affecting the elements of the environment and how it changes, and then explored the influences of contemporary socio-economic processes in the environment in which the accent is placed on the importance of population and coastal economic activities, particularly tourism and related tourism carrying capacity of a given area. In particular, it explores those elements of the nature that are most affected by human activities or those components that are ultimately crucial for normal functioning of the human community. The focus of research is the population, and human activities and the deployment of people and the consequential implications for the space that belongs to. The goal of the research is to analyze the impact of contemporary social and geographical processes, especially littoralization, the transformation of the natural components of the environment of the central Dalmatian coast and finding geographical aspects and the main reasons of intensive littoralization. It is necessary to explain the physical changes of natural components of the environment as a result of numerous social activities and processes, and determine the correlation between human activities and functions, and environmental degradation. Other socio-geographical processes like depopulation and deruralization are more pronounced in the hinterland of the coastal municipalities and deagrarization that is present on the coast and in the hinterland. The actual level and intensity of various anthropogenic interventions into the environment is more important than the period before World War II, while the biggest problem is that modern science can not yet predict the full consequences of what society makes on the environment today. Human impact is crucial for the sustainability of natural ecosystems, and ecosystems are affecting the quality of life of people. Numerous data such as population growth and the development of industry and tourism has proven hypothesis that littoralization on the central dalmatian coastal area affected the transformation of the coastal area. In addition, one of the hypothesis is that littoralization polarized central Dalmatia because demographic base of hinterland and the islands in modern times weakened considerably as in combination with the natural decline of the population affected by the gradual reduction of the number of inhabitants. Due to the complexity of the problem it is necessary to multidisciplinary study of the environment. Without knowledge of chemistry, biology, ecology, history and geography, it is impossible to study the environmental situation and make useful guidelines. It is positive that the proportion of built area in Croatia and in the central coastal region is still acceptable. The biggest drawback is the uneven construction and expansion of artificial surfaces. An example of this is precisely the central Dalmatian coastline where the share of the constructed, artificial surfaces is significantly higher on a narrow strip along the coastline. Interestingly, although in modern times there is a tendency of reducing the number of inhabitants of central Dalmatia artificial surface are increasing. From this it follows that the population in modern times has ever increasing demands in terms of taking up space. Various forms of evaluation of geological fundamentals are still current even though they had a significant role in the time of industrialization after World War II. Taking advantage of the stone, marl and bitumen defiles the air and inland waters nearby. These activities resulted in soil degradation, changes of landforms and visual changes. Because social activities have occurred microclimate changes occurred also due to emissions into the atmosphere causing deterioration in air quality. The state of the marine environment and the quality of the sea are one of the main indicators of the littoralization impact on the central coastal areas due to the rapid increase in population after the Second World War. Industrialization and development of tourism has increased the burden on the marine environment. The greatest damage to the state of the marine environment inflicted industrial activity due to discharge of untreated industrial waste water, irrational fishing and intensive maritime traffic. In modern times a great impact on the marine environment is shipping, in particular cruise ships that discharge ballast water that lead to the spread of non-native species. In addition, cruise ships discharge gray and black waste water. For a long time sea was perceived as unlimited receptor for all sorts of waste, but the awareness is slowly changing. Although today there are a large number of cases of waste disposal into the sea, the quality has to be improved, especially in the Bay of Kaštela. To maintain the number of marine ecosystems it is necessary to prevent silting of the sea, which was very widespread in the central coastal region, especially due to the construction of industrial plants such as Jugovinil, the construction of the breakwater and harbor. The state of inland waters is satisfying, especially the water quality of the river Cetina. Different activities due to the increase in population and economic activity have left their effects on the state of inland waters because of discharge of urban waste water into the river, agricultural activities and traffic. Harmful agricultural activities such as irrational use of protective equipment have led to the leakage in to the underground which affected the state of ground water which consequently can cause problems in the quality of water supply. Pollution and water pollution took place due to the disposal of waste containing harmful substances. The greatest load on the aquatic environment was caused by the discharge of waste water from households, while agriculture and industry have a smaller impact. It is positive that the discharge of waste water into public sewerage systems is increasing, especially in the Kaštela and the Split area. The greatest load on the water supply system, and therefore the aquatic environment and the availability of water is more pronounced in the summer months due to the increase in the number of users. In certain areas during the summer water consumption is 300% higher than winter consumption. The biggest lacks of water supply systems is big water loss. Estimated state of waters of the central coast is satisfying. The biggest problem is at the source of rivers Jadro and Žrnovnica due to discharges of urban waste water. The ecological status of the central part of the Adriatic is still satisfying. Quality was excellent for the most places, except for a few locations in the Bay of Kaštela. The tendency is such that the situation in the Kastela Bay is improving. Reducing industrial production since the 1990s has led to reduce of pollution of the marine environment which originated from land. Impact of fisheries and aquaculture is the most significant because of the entry of organic matter in the marine environment. The negative fact is that it reduces the biomass of numerous populations such as sea bream, hake and red mullet. The biological quality of the sea is very good. In maritime transport, the biggest impact on the marine environment is caused by discharge of ballast water originating outside the Adriatic Sea and sediment pollution by heavy metals, especially along the marina. Environmental protection is satisfactory although a revision of all forms of protection is necessary because some areas are no longer in need of protection or have lost their original purpose. This is the case with an important landscape in Ruskamen because location is strongly degraded by the construction of houses and roads. Farming is more developed in the western part of central Dalmatian coast, which confirmed the hypothesis that suitable geographical features have a negative impact on the environment. In addition to agriculture, this fact holds true for other industries. Increase of population and economic activities in the central coastal region is reflected on the state of soil and vegetation. Condition of the soil has deteriorated primarily for taking a fertile soil due to construction, whether residential buildings or commercial purposes. Deforestation and neglect of agricultural activities increased soil erosion and removal of fertile soil. In many locations, soil conditions worsened due to illegal waste disposal and discharge of urban waste water. The link between agriculture and soil conditions is important especially in modern times using pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers. It is necessary to preserve the remaining arable land and stop conversion of agricultural land for non-agricultural purposes. The impact of various farming activities changed since the early 20th century. Because of littoralization forest areas have increased in the hinterland, and reduced in the coastal region. Basically there has been a spread of deciduous forests in the hinterland and reducing coniferous forests along the coast due to the intensive construction. Reducing agricultural activities, especially livestock, reduced the area under pasture and for the most part have been converted to natural grasslands. Sociogeographic processes are crucial factor in contemporary environmental changes. The increase in population and spatial distribution are largely influenced by the state of the natural components of the environment. By increasing the number of inhabitants the need for more housing space has increased. This resulted in reduction of arable land, destruction and fragmentation of natural habitats, degradation of inland waters and the quality of sea water. As the largest population density of central Dalmatia is along the coast there are most pronounced contemporary processes that affect the environment. Due to the depopulation state of natural components has improved in the hinterland, thus confirming one of the hypotheses. Abandonment of agriculture pressure on coastal environment has increased. The values of the basic structure of the population lead to the conclusion of an unfavorable biological and economic structure which might in the future reduce the pressure on the coastal environment. Economic activity is the main element of littoralization. The impact of was more pronounced after World War II, and today is more dangerous because of the use of modern means of protection. Agricultural areas along the coastline are mostly occupied and turned into built-up areas. Use of pesticides and herbicides led to contamination of ground water, air and soil. Agricultural activities created anthropogenic relief forms, which are neglected in modern times. Agricultural land is decreasing and more and more used in accordance with the principles of sustainable agriculture. Fisheries and aquaculture represent a major threat to the marine environment. Excessive and irrational overfishing leads to disruption of marine ecosystems and maritime transport and to the possible pollution of sea water. Mariculture is an activity that can be an excellent example of sustainable development. It is necessary to harmonize spatial capacities and do not let the collision of different activities, especially aquaculture and tourism. Industry after the Second World War had a decisive influence on environmental changes, such as the condition of the soil in Kaštela area and water quality in the bay of Kaštela which confirmed one of the major hypotheses. Industrial activities generate a large amount of waste that is sometimes improperly disposed and even today there are industrial plants which are a threat to the environment, such as Salonit. Industrialization increase the demand for mineral raw materials which affected the increase in the number of open pits and the environment. The biggest problem of industrial plants is discharge of industrial wastewater which can pollute soil, land and sea waters. The positive fact is that on the central coastal region there are great potentials of using renewable energy, particularly wind and solar energy, while hydropower is already substantially utilized. Industrial production in Croatia, but also on the central coast, from the beginning of the economic crisis of 2008, was reduced therefore emissions of pollutants was reduced. The main source of pollution from industrial plants are the cement industry and shipbuilding. It is positive that the air in most of the study area was assessed I. category except one measuring station. Intense road city traffic, especially in the area of Split, which includes inadequate public transport is the main contributor to air pollution emissions of CO2, NOx and suspended particulate matter. In Split area is the largest concentration of NO2 pollution from heavy city traffic. Transport affects the biodiversity of fragmentation and destruction of habitats. This can be prevented by protecting the areas. Tourism has a key position in modern environmental changes. The goal of the sustainable development of tourism involves the use of methods of carrying capacity and possible changes in forms of tourism, especially the reorientation of mass to elite tourism. Since the 1970s the importance of tourism to environmental changes is growing, primarily due to higher construction in the coastal zone. Since the 1980s, tourism has become the dominant economic activity which causes strengthening of contemporary socio-economic processes of urbanization, apartment building and covering it with concrete. Increase in tourism has increased pressure on the coastal environment due to higher demand for electricity, water and parking spaces. The biggest impact on the marine environment has nautical tourism. Saturation of space is one of the main features of modern tourism. The use of carrying capacity offers a solution for potential future problems. In the future the coastal area might be under the greatest pressure due to the construction of infrastructure facilities, development of tourism and transport. Physiognomic and functional changes in Dalmatia are driven by littoralization. The most dominant is the process of increasing urban areas, spreading grasslands and deciduous forests, a reduction of pastures and coniferous forests. Physiognomic changes in space are analyzed on the basis of bitemporal recordings of individual locations. The analysis shows that in most locations, there was a physical expansion of settlements, building apartments, covering it with concrete, reduction of arable land and reforestation. Littoralization has a significant impact on the state of the natural components of the environment, mostly in a negative way in the narrow coastal zone while the state of the environment has improved in the hinterland due to process of deagrarization and depopulation. In order to preserve the future of this state of the environment or possibly improve it is necessary to implement horizontal legislation, to include national laws regarding environmental protection and apply them to the local level and conduct environmental impact studies for all economic activity. After conducting the survey research according to the respondents the most negative impact on the natural environmental components represents industry (3.7), especially in the area of Kaštela and Solin. Apart from industry, the respondents believe that a significant negative impact is made by tourism (3.3), especially in the area of smaller municipalities, such as Baška Voda, Brela and Tučepi. A small negative impact represents fishing (2.9), aquaculture (2.8) and agriculture (2.7). Due to the weakening of agricultural activities in the modern era, the prevailing opinion is that the impact of agriculture is no longer so negative. Respondents from the area of Omiš believe that the most negative impact is by agriculture. Most respondents in the area of Marina and Seget believe that the impact of aquaculture is harmful, while respondents from the Makarska Riviera consider mariculture the least harmful. The reason for this is the lack of cage culture of marine organisms on the Makarska area.