undergraduate thesis
Biological characteristics of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) in modern farming

Tina Vuletić (2016)
Sveučilište u Zadru
Odjel za ekologiju, agronomiju i akvakulturu
Metadata
TitleBiološke osobine sorata breskve (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) u suvremenom uzgoju
AuthorTina Vuletić
Mentor(s)Jasna Rumora (thesis advisor)
Abstract
Breskva (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) je voćna vrsta koja se najviše proizvodi u Europi i Aziji. Najveći svjetski proizvođač je Kina, odakle i potječe, a u Europi je najveći proizvođač Italija. Spada u koštičavo voće. Najviše se konzumira u svježem stanju tijekom ljeta, gdje se naglasak stavlja na obojenost plodova, okus i aromu te boju mesa i krupnoću ploda. Neki od poželjnih svojstva breskve su redovita i obilna rodnost i dobra kvaliteta ploda za svježu potrošnju ili preradu. Ostala važna svojstva su biološka, pomološka i tržišna svojstva kao što su otpornost na niske temperature, bujnost i vegetativni rast, vrijeme dozrijevanja ploda, boja pokožice, kemijski sastav kao i okus ploda i otpornost na negativne posljedice skladištenja i transporta. Kod breskve je početna rodnost moguća već u drugoj godini nakon sadnje, dok u puni rod ulazi u 5. ili 6. godini. Sortiment breskve stalno se prilagođava novim zahtjevima tržišta te je podložan brzim promjenama. U punom rodu prosječan prinos je od 30 do 40 t/ha u dobrim agroekološkim uvjetima. Ekološki uvjeti uzgoja su klima, tlo, geografska širina, nadmorska visina i položaj. Osjetljiva je na rane proljetne mrazeve, što dosta ovisi i o odabiru otpornijih, odnosno onih sorata koje kasnije cvatu. Breskve se uzgajaju uglavnom u umjerenom pojasu s dva tipa klime: kontinentalna klima s oborinama u razdoblju od svibnja do listopada i sredozemna klima s vlažnim zimama i toplim i suhim ljetima. Odgovaraju joj topla staništa sa dosta sunca, što je važno za dozrijevanje i obojanost ploda. Breskva se može uzgajati na raznim tipovima zemljišta, pod uvjetom da se za svaki tip zemljišta koristi adekvatna podloga. Podloga koja se najviše koristi je GF 667 koja podnosi do 12% fiziološki aktivnog vapna (f.a.v.). Najbolji rezultati uzgoja se postižu na dobro propusnoj, duboko pjeskovitoj ilovači, sa niskim salinitetom i sa optimalnim pH vrijednostima između 6 i 7. Slabo podnosi visoke podzemne vode zbog čega može doći do truleži korijena. Od agrotehničkih mjera su najvažnije navodnjavanje, održavanje uzgojnog oblika rezidbom te prorjeđivanje plodova.
Keywordsenviromental conditions fertility peach varieties
Parallel title (English)Biological characteristics of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) in modern farming
Committee MembersTomislav Kos (committee chairperson)
Jasna Rumora (committee member)
Andrija Finka (committee member)
GranterSveučilište u Zadru
Lower level organizational unitsOdjel za ekologiju, agronomiju i akvakulturu
PlaceZadar
StateCroatia
Scientific field, discipline, subdisciplineBIOTECHNICAL SCIENCES
Agronomy
Fruit Growing
Study programme typeuniversity
Study levelundergraduate
Study programmeApplied Ecology in Agronomy
Academic title abbreviationuniv. bacc. ing. agr
Genreundergraduate thesis
Language Croatian
Defense date2016-09-30
Parallel abstract (English)
Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is a fruit species, which is mostly produced in Europe and Asia. The world largest producer is China, where it originates from and the largest producer in Europe is Italy. It belongs to the stone fruits. It us mostly consumed fresh during the summer, where the emphasis is on fruit coloring, flavor, aroma, color of meat and fruit size. Other important peach properties are biological, pomological and market characteristics such as resistance to low temperatures, vigor and vegetative growth, ripe fruit, skin color, chemical composition as well as the taste and resistance to the negative effects of storage and transport. Peach fruits start to apper in the second year after planting, and the biggest yield is achieved after fifth or sixth year. New varieties of peaches are constantly adapting to new market requirements and they are adapting its changes fast. It can reach its maximum fruit production of approximatey 30 to 40 t/ha in good environmental conditions. Ecological culture conditions are climate, soil, latitude, altitude and position. Peach is sensitive to early spring frosts, and it is important to elect frost resistant varieties which have a late flowering. Peaches are grown mainly in the temperate zone with two types of climate: continental climate with rainfall in the period from May to October and Mediterranean climate with wet winters and hot dry summers. Plenty of sunlight and warm habitat are important for the maturation and coloration of the fruit. Peach can be grown in different soil types, provided that for each type of land is used an adequate rootstock. The rootstock which is the most used is GF 667 filing up to 12% active lime. Best results are achieved in a well-permeable, deep sandy loam soil with low salinity and optimum pH between 6 and 7. It is sensitive to high groundwater which may cause root rot. From agricultural practices the most important are irrigation, pruning and removing excess fruits.
Parallel keywords (Croatian)breskva ekološki uvjeti rodnost sortiment
Resource typetext
Access conditionOpen access
Terms of usehttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:162:989066
CommitterGorica Lovrić