doctoral thesis
Decoration of the Diocletian's Palace at Split

Vinka Marinković (2016)
University of Zadar
Metadata
TitleDekoracija Dioklecijanove palače u Splitu
AuthorVinka Marinković
Mentor(s)Dražen Maršić
Abstract
Dioklecijanova palača u Splitu sagrađena je na prijelazu iz 3. u 4. st. po Kr. kao rezidencija umirovljenog augusta i osnivača tetrarhije Dioklecijana. S obzirom na stanje sačuvanosti, istraženosti i količinu publiciranog materijala, izvrsno je uporište za istraživanje tipološki i funkcijski sličnih građevina. Iz rimske palače razvila se srednjevjekovna općina, a potom suvremeni moderni grad Split. Kontinuitet života u zoni carske palače uvjetovao je mnoga oštećenja izvornog sloja, ali i utjecao na činjenicu da svaka nova intervencija u gradsko tkivo rezultira ponekim novim nalazom. Sistematizacijom nalaza moguće je dobiti uvid u širu sliku nekadašnje imperijalne palače i njezinog uređenja koje je bilo u ulozi političkog i religijskog programa. U radu je provedena katalogizacija i sistematizacija građe prema postojećim grupama dekora: arhitektonskim reljefima, punoj skulpturi, fresko slikarstvu, mozaicima i mramornim oblogama. Već postojećim povijesnim spoznajama i poznatim činjenicama pridruženi su nalazi dobiveni u posljednjem desetljeću. Rezultate nisu dala samo arheološka istraživanja, već građevinski radovi i konzervatorsko-restauratorski zahvati koji se intenzivno provode u staroj gradskoj jezgri. Novi podaci dobiveni su pregledom stručne dokumentacije institucija koje se aktivno bave proučavanjem, dokumentiranjem i pitanjem zaštite Dioklecijanove palače: Konzervatorskog odjela u Splitu, Službe za staru gradsku jezgru Grada Splita te Hrvatskog restauratorskog zavoda. Paralelno je provedena revizija građe u muzejima. U sklopu pisanja rada izvršeno je i jedno terensko istraživanje: demontaža i konzervatorskorestauratorski zahvat na kamenim skulpturama ugrađenim u palaču Cambi, za koje je pretpostavljena pripadnost dekoraciji palače. Cilj je bio restauratorskim postupcima zaustaviti uznapredovalu degradaciju kamena i pobliže analizirati formu, stilske značajke i vrstu materijala. Rezultati cjelokupnog istraživanja su heterogeni i uključuju interpretacije pojedinih teorija, ali i prirodoslovnih analiza uzoraka kamena. Osim što su pronađeni novi artefakti, dati su novi zaključci o pitanju klesarskih radionica koje su djelovale u zoni palače. Na temelju arheoloških dokaza i prirodoslovnih analiza moguće je otvoriti pitanje tzv. „bračke radionice“ koja je djelovala na uređenju palače, a njegovala je svoj specifičan stil. Analizom svake grupe dekora moguće je pratiti i razlučiti razvojne faze palače. Generalnom revizijom materijala utvrđeno je da čitavi repertoar dekoracije sadrži stanovitu ležernost i pad izvedbene kvalitete. Transcendentalna struja koja se pojavila u likovnom izražavanju odrazila se i na ikonografske kanone i na dosada strogo poštivane tehničke standarde. Skulpture i reljefi su nedovršeni, a ponegdje samo grubo abocirani. Figuralni motivi se redaju bez strogo propisanih parametara, a neki važni ikonografski motivi se multipliciraju (čime gube na važnosti) i javljaju postranično. Veliki dio mramornih obloga je grubo rezan i neobrađen. Zidni i podni mozaici su izvedeni od velikih kockica, na nekim zonama vrlo nespretno i grubo. Dekadenciju stila ne treba tumačiti samo brzinom gradnje. Nedovršenost i prividni nemar je pokušaj dematerijalizacije forme karakteristične za tetrarhiju i njeno simboličko viđenje stvari. U duhu navedenoga treba dijelom tumačiti i prostorne nelogičnosti i denivelacije čitave palače.
KeywordsDiocletian's Palace tetrarchy sculpture mosaics frescoes marble revetments
Parallel title (English)Decoration of the Diocletian's Palace at Split
Committee MembersNenad Cambi (committee chairperson)
Dražen Maršić (committee member)
Branko Matulić (committee member)
GranterUniversity of Zadar
PlaceZadar
StateCroatia
Scientific field, discipline, subdisciplineHUMANISTIC SCIENCES
Archeology
UDK902/904
GEOGRAPHY. BIOGRAPHY. HISTORY
Archaeology
Study programme typeuniversity
Study levelpostgraduate
Study programmeArchaeology of the Eastern Adriatic
Academic title abbreviationdr. sc.
Genredoctoral thesis
Language Croatian
Defense date2016-09-20
Parallel abstract (English)
Diocletian's Palace in Split was built at the turn of the 4th century AD as a residence of the retired Roman emperor and the founder of tetrarchy Diocletian. Due to its preservation, the amount of conducted research and published material, it is an excellent point of reference in the research of typologically and functionally similar structures. This Roman palace developed into a mediaeval municipality, and later into the modern-day city of Split. The continuity of life in the Palace has caused a lot of damage to the original layer, and each new intervention to the old city core leads to new findings. The systematization of findings offers an insight into the bigger picture of the former imperial palace and its interior design, which was used for both political and religious purposes. This paper contains the cataloguing and the systematization of the material according to the existing groups of decor: architectural relief, sculpture, fresco painting, mosaic and marble revetments. In addition to the existing historical insights and previously established facts, it contains the findings obtained during the last decade. These findings are the result of both archeological research, as well as intensive construction and conservation-restoration work within the old city core. New data has been obtained by analysing documents compiled by institutions which have been actively studying, documenting and working towards the protection of Diocletian's Palace: Split Department for Conservation, the City of Split's Department for the Old City Core and Croatian Conservation Institute. At the same time, museum materials have been revised. For the purposes of this paper, a field research was also conducted: stone sculptures built into Cambi Palace, which are believed to be a part of the original Diocletian's Palace decor, were taken down and restored. Using restoration procedures, the goal was to put a stop to the advanced stone degradation, as well as to analyse the form, period features and the type of materials. The findings of the whole research are heterogeneous and include both the interpretations of theories, as well as natural-science analyses of stone samples. In addition to finding new artifacts, new conclusions have been presented regarding stone-cutting workshops which were active in the Palace. Based on archeological findings and natural-science analyses, it can be assumed that the so-called "Brač workshop", with its distinctive style, was also active in decorating the Palace. By analysing each type of decor, it is possible to distinguish different phases in the development of the Palace. The overall revision of the material has led to a conclusion that there was a certain casual manner in creating the decor, as well as a decline in the quality of its execution. The transcendental trend which was present in visual arts had an effect on both iconographic canons, as well as previously strict technical standards. Sculptures and reliefs are unfinished, in places only roughly outlined. Figural motifs appear without strictly prescribed parameters, while certain important iconographic motifs were multiplied (thus losing their significance) and appear peripherally. A large number of marble revetments was cut roughly and remained without a finish. Wall and floor mosaics were made using large squares, and in some of the areas they were executed in a rough manner. The decadence of style should not be attributed only to speedy construction. The incompleteness and the apparent carelessness were an attempt to dematerialize the form typical of tetrarchy and its symbolic views. Taking into consideration all of the above, spacial illogicalities and the delevelling of the whole Palace should be interpreted as well.
Parallel keywords (Croatian)Dioklecijanova palača tetrarhija skulptura mozaici freske mramorne obloge
Versionaccepted version
Resource typetext
Access conditionOpen access
Terms of usehttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
Noteaccepted version
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:162:919694
CommitterMarta Unković