master's thesis
Effects of perceptual load on success of fifth grade primary school pupils in the visual search task

Milka Vučić (2016)
University of Zadar
Department of Psychology
Metadata
TitleEfekti percpeptivnog opterećenja na uspješnost u zadatku vidnog pretraživanja kod učenika i učenica petih razreda osnovne škole
AuthorMilka Vučić
Mentor(s)Pavle Valerjev (thesis advisor)
Abstract
Mehanizmi koje Lavie (1995) zahvaća svojom teorijom perceptivnog opterećenja stoje u pozadini (ne)distraktibilnosti za vrijeme fokusiranja na određeni zadatak. Naime, autorica pretpostavlja da distraktori neće doseći svijest u situaciji kada je osoba usmjerena na zadatak visokog perceptivnog opterećenja, dok će s druge strane, osoba biti svjesna distraktora ukoliko je usmjerena na zadatak manjeg perceptivnog opterećenja (Lavie, Beck i Konstantinou, 2014). Cilj provedenog istraživanja bio je provjeriti efekte vanjskog irelevantnog distraktora na uspješnost učenika petih razreda osnovne škole u zadatku vidnog pretraživanja. Kako bi se to ispitalo provedena su dva eksperimenta unutar kojih su ispitanici rješavali zadatak vidnog pretraživanja. Oba postupka su bila skoro identična osim razlike u veličini i poziciji vanjskog irelevantnog distraktora u spomenutom zadatku. Uz zadatak vidnog pretraživanja učenici su ispunjavali upitnik hiperaktivnosti-impulzivnosti-pažnje (HIP). Forster, Robertson, Jennings, Asherson i Lavie (2015) su povećanjem perceptivnog opterećenja ciljnog zadatka uspjeli eliminirati distraktibilnost kod odraslih ljudi s dijagnozom poremećaja deficita pažnje i hiperaktivnosti (PDPH). Bilo je zanimljivo u provedenim eksperimentima ispitati kako će vanjski irelevantni distraktor utjecati na učenike i učenice petih razreda s različitom zastupljenošću simptoma spomenutog poremećaja. U oba eksperimenta uspješno je manipulirano perceptivno opterećenje, no efekt perceptivnog opterećenja kakav pretpostavlja Lavie (1995) dobiven je samo u drugom eksperimentu i to za vrijeme odgovora. U istom dijelu istraživanja vanjski irelevantni distraktor značajno je umanjivao točnost ispitanika u zadatku vidnog pretraživanja kako se povećavalo perceptivno opterećenje, što nije u skladu s očekivanjima teorije perceptivnog opterećenja. Nadalje, efekti spola su dobiveni samo u drugom provedenom eksperimentu. Odnosno, vanjski irelevantni distraktor je kod učenica umanjio točnost na zadatku vidnog pretraživanja ali ne i kod učenika. U provedenim eksperimentima je dobiveno kako ispitanici s više simptoma impulzivnosti i deficita pažnje griješe značajno više u zadatku vidnog pretraživanja od ispitanika s manje simptoma istih značajki PDPH-a, ali taj efekt pod najvećim i najmanjim perceptivnim opterećenjem ne postoji. Konačno, više očekivanih efekata dobiveno je u drugom provedenom eksperimentu na temelju čega bi se možda moglo zaključiti da će učenike i učenice lakše omesti oni vanjski irelevantni distraktori koje ne očekuju i koji se zbog svoje pozicije mogu doživjeti kao dio zadatka a ne pozadine.
Keywordsperceptual load outer irrelevant distracters ADHD
Parallel title (English)Effects of perceptual load on success of fifth grade primary school pupils in the visual search task
Committee MembersNataša Šimić (committee chairperson)
Pavle Valerjev (committee member)
Ivana Tucak Junaković (committee member)
GranterUniversity of Zadar
Lower level organizational unitsDepartment of Psychology
PlaceZadar
StateCroatia
Scientific field, discipline, subdisciplineSOCIAL SCIENCES
Psychology
Developmental Psychology
Study programme typeuniversity
Study levelgraduate
Study programmePsychology
Academic title abbreviationmag. psych.
Genremaster's thesis
Language Croatian
Defense date2016-10-10
Parallel abstract (English)
The mechanisms that Lavie (1995) encompasses with her perceptual load therory lies in the background of (in)distractibility during focusing on a certain task. It, in fact, presupposes that distracters would not reach the consciousness in a situation when a person is focused on a task of high perceptual load, while on the other hand, a person would be aware of distracters if focused on a task of low perceptual load (Lavie, Beck & Konstantinou, 2014). The aim of the conducted research was to investigate the effects of outer irrelevant distracters on the success of fifth grade primary school pupils in a task of visual search. In order to examine it, two experiments were conducted under which the respondents solved the tasks of visual search. Both procedures were almost identical except for the size and position of the outer irrelevant distracters in the mentioned task. Besides the task of visual search, the pupils also completed a hyperactivity-impulsivity- attention questionnaire (HIA). By increasing the perceptual load of target task, Forster, Robertson, Jennings, Asherson & Lavie (2015), managed to eliminate distractibility among adults with ADHD. In the conducted experiments it was interesting to investigate how outer irrelevant distracters would affect fifth grade pupils with different representation of symptoms of the mentioned disorder. In both experiments, perceptual load was successfully manipulated, but the effect that Lavie (2015) presupposes was obtained only in the second experiment for response time. In the same part of the research, outer irrelevant distracters significantly decreased the accuracy of respondents during the task of visual search with the increase of perceptual load which, does not agree with the expectations of the theory of perceptual load. Further, the effects of sex were only gained in the second experiment. Outer irrelevant distracters decreased accuracy in a task of visual search among female pupils but not with male pupils. In the conducted experiments it was obtained that the respondents with more symptoms of impulsivity and attention make much more mistakes in a task of visual search then the respondents with less symptoms of the same kind of ADHD characteristics, but the effect under the highest and the lowest load does not exist. Finally, more expected effects were obtained in the second conducted experiment on the basis of which it can be concluded that the pupils are more easily distracted by the unexpected outer irrelevant distracters which, due to their position, can be perceived as part of a task and not as background.
Parallel keywords (Croatian)perceptivno opterećenje vanjski irelevantni distraktor PDPH
Resource typetext
Access conditionOpen access
Terms of usehttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:162:111687
CommitterGorica Lovrić