undergraduate thesis
The Attitude of Soviet Authorities Towards Stalin after His Death

Elena Darabuš (2016)
Sveučilište u Zadru
Odjel za povijest
Metadata
TitleOdnos sovjetskih vlasti prema Staljinu nakon njegove smrti
AuthorElena Darabuš
Mentor(s)Branko Kasalo (thesis advisor)
Abstract
Ovaj rad bavi se odnosom sovjetskih vlasti prema Staljinu nakon njegove smrti pa do konačnog raspada Sovjetskog Saveza 1991. godine. Poslije Staljinove smrti 1953. godine na čelu Sovjetskog Saveza izmijenilo se nekoliko ličnosti, od kojih se svaka na svoj način pokušala obračunati s bivšim Staljinovim režimom. Prvi Staljinov nasljednik – Maljenkov, među prvima je javno osudio Staljinov kult ličnosti. Nakon Maljenkova vlast u SSSR-u pripala je antistaljinistu Nikiti Hruščovu. Na XX. kongresu KPSS-a 1956. godine, poznatim „tajnim govorom“ Hruščova službeno je započeo proces destaljinizacije u Sovjetskom Savezu. Hruščov je osudio Staljinov totalitarni režim, političke čistke tijekom 30-ih godina, represije koje je Staljin provodio na stanovništvom, a posebno Staljinov kult ličnosti. Obračun sa Staljinovom politikom Hruščov je iskazao rehabilitacijom osuđenika iz Staljinovog razdoblja terora, ublažavanjem cenzure u tisku i medijima, ali i sve rjeđim spominjanjem Staljinovog imena u javnosti. S obzirom da sovjetsko društvo nije bilo spremno na zaokret u pogledu bivšeg vođe, javile su se podjele na one koji su prihvatili destaljinizaciju i na branitelje Staljina. Usprkos podjeljenim mišljenjima u sovjetskom društvu, na XXII. kongresu KPSS-a 1961. godine došlo je do novog vala destaljinizacije. Uz ponovno osudu Staljina i njegovih zločina, Staljinovo tijelo je, iz zajedničkog mauzoleja s Lenjinom, premješteno izvan zidina Kremlja, a gradu Staljingrad dodijeljen je nov naziv – Volgograd. Unatoč odlučnosti partijskog vrha da raskine s politikom i nasljeđem Staljina, Hruščovljev odlazak s vlasti 1964. godine zaustavio je proces destaljinizacije, a sovjetsko društvo ostavio podijeljenim. Dolaskom na vlast Brežnjeva 1964. godine i smjenom partijskog kadra, u državnom su se vrhu suprotstavile grupe antistaljinista i zagovaratelja Staljina. Zbog dvojbi i neodlučnosti najčešće se posezalo za tzv. politikom prešućivanja, pa se Staljinovo ime sve rjeđe spominjalo u javnosti. Ipak, dopušteno je objavljivanje knjiga Staljinovih vojnih zapovjednika, u kojima je Staljin pozitivno ocijenjen, a u javnosti su bile dobro prihvaćene. Općenito gledano, mišljenje o Staljinu bilo je sve pozitivnije, ali zbog straha od reakcija u društvu partijski vrh nije u javnosti izražavao konkretan i jasan stav. U kratkom prijelaznom razdoblju između vlasti Brežnjeva i Gorbačova (1982. – 1985. godine) provedena je manja rehabilitacija bivših partijskih dužnosnika, koju je proveo Černjenko. Godine 1985. na vlast je došao Gorbačov. U prvim godinama vladanja njegov stav prema Staljinu bio je dvosmislen. No, kako su neki od glavnih ciljeva Gorbačova bili uvođenje demokracije i javno preispitivanje sovjetske povijesti, on je morao jasno izraziti stav prema Staljinu i njegovoj politici. Tako je i Gorbačov osudio Staljina, pa je tijekom posljednjih godina postojanja Sovjetskog Saveza u partijskom vrhu, ali i sovjetskom društvu prevladavalo antistaljinističko ozračje.
KeywordsStalin cult of personality Khrushchev destalinization Twentieth Congress of the CPSU Brezhnev Gorbachev anti-Stalinism
Parallel title (English)The Attitude of Soviet Authorities Towards Stalin after His Death
Committee MembersMateo Bratanić (committee chairperson)
Antun Nekić (committee member)
GranterSveučilište u Zadru
Lower level organizational unitsOdjel za povijest
PlaceZadar
StateCroatia
Scientific field, discipline, subdisciplineHUMANISTIC SCIENCES
History
Croatian and World Modern and Contemporary History
Study programme typeuniversity
Study levelundergraduate
Study programmeHistory
Academic title abbreviationuniv. bacc. hist.
Genreundergraduate thesis
Language Croatian
Defense date2016-09-29
Parallel abstract (English)
This bachelor thesis analyses Soviet authorities’ attitude towards Stalin from after his death until the Fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. After Stalin’s death in 1953, several figures altered on the position of the Soviet leader, each with their own way of dealing with Stalin’s former regime. Stalin’s first successor Malenkov was one of the first to publicly condemn the harmfulness of Stalin’s cult of personality. Malenkov was succeeded by an anti-Stalinist Nikita Khrushchev who then became the new leader of the USSR. His “Secret Speech” delivered at the Twentieth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) in 1956 officially marked the beginning of the de-Stalinization of the state. Khrushchev denounced Stalin’s totalitarian regime, political purges in the 1930s, repression against the general population and his cult of personality. Some of the measures taken against Stalin’s policies were: the rehabilitation of prisoners who were convicted during Stalin’s terror, the relaxation of censorship rules, and the removal of Stalin’s name from everything that was named after him. Since the Soviet society was not ready to change their mind about their former leader, there also existed those who accepted the process of de-Stalinization and defended of Stalin. Despite divided opinions in the Soviet society, the process of de- Stalinization culminated in 1961 at the Twenty-Second Congress of CPSU. Apart from further condemnation of Stalin and his crimes, it was decided at the Congress that Stalin’s body was to be transferred from Lenin’s mausoleum in the Red Square outside the Kremlin walls, and that the city of Stalingrad was to be renamed to Volgograd. Despite the determination of the Party’s leadership to break Stalin’s politics and legacy, Khrushchev’s fall from power in 1964 halted the process of de- Stalinization and left divided the Soviet society. When Brezhnev became the new leader of the Soviet Union in 1964 and subsequently reorganized the party cadre, many of the Soviet officials supported Stalin, while others were anti-Stalinists. Due to doubts and irresolution, Stalin’s name was mentioned as rarely as possible. Nevertheless, books written by Stalin’s military commanders, in which he was positively evaluated, were well-received. Generally speaking, Stalin was starting to be seen as a positive figure, but since the Party’s leadership was afraid of the people’s reaction, they didn’t publicly express their opinion. In the short transition period that separated the eras of Brezhnev and Gorbachev (1982 – 1985), Chernenko conducted a rehabilitation of former party functionaries. In 1985 Gorbachev came to power. During his first years in office, his attitude towards Stalin was ambiguous. However, since some of Gorbachev’s main goals were the public scrutiny of Soviet history and the introduction of democracy, he had to clearly express his opinion on Stalin and his policies. Once Gorbachev denounced Stalin, an anti-Stalinist attitude started to prevail in the Soviet society and within the Communist party, especially during the last years of the Soviet Union.
Parallel keywords (Croatian)Staljin kult ličnosti Hruščov destaljinizacija XX. kongres KPSS-a Brežnjev Gorbačov antistaljinizam
Resource typetext
Access conditionOpen access
Terms of usehttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:162:962235
CommitterMarta Unković