undergraduate thesis
The multiple identity and the metafiction in Hermann Hesse's novel “Steppenwolf"

Katarina Šercer (2016)
Sveučilište u Zadru
Odjel za germanistiku
Metadata
TitleMultiple Identität und Metafiktionalität in Hermann Hesses Roman „Der Steppenwolf“
AuthorKatarina Šercer
Mentor(s)Tomislav Zelić (thesis advisor)
Abstract
„Der Steppenwolf“ ist eines der bedeutendsten Werke Hermann Hesses, das zu Beginn seiner Veröffentlichung eher Ablehnung hervorrief, aber später die Lieblingslektüre besonders der Jugendlichen in den 70er Jahren wurde. „Der Steppenwolf“ ist fast eine Autobiographie Hermann Hesses, denn in diesem Roman verarbeitete der damals fünfzigjährige Autor seine seelische Krise43. Im „Steppenwolf" gerät Harry Haller in den Konflikt, die „Balance von sozialer und persönlicher Identität“, das heißt ein Gleichgewicht zwischen den eigenen Bedürfnissen und denen der Mitmenschen, zu finden44. Als Steppenwolf kämpft er darum, sich einerseits in die Gesellschaft zu integrieren und andererseits, seine Individualität auszuleben. Das leitende Motiv ist hierbei also seine Zerrissenheit, unter welcher die Hauptfigur leidet. Seine Identitätsspaltung führt letztendlich darauf zurück, dass er sein Leben zwischen diesen zwei Welten nur schwer ertragen kann. In ihm herrschen nämlich zwei verschiedene Komponenten: der Wolf und der Mensch, wobei sie immer wieder auseinander fallen und unvereinbar erscheinen. Dies ist der grundlegende Auslöser für Harry Hallers Identitätskrise. In vielen Romanen, besonders in den Bildungs- und Entwicklungsromanen, steht die Identitätssuche als Konflikt des Ichs und der Welt sowie die notwendig gesehene Integration im Mittelpunkt. Es geht um die oftmals gegensätzlichen Lebenskonzepte des Protagonisten und des Bürgertums, wobei sich die Hautfiguren bis zuletzt einzugliedern versuchen45. Auch der Steppenwolf Haller beschreitet seinen Weg außerhalb der Norm, wird belehrt und findet schließlich selbst die Antwort auf seine Lebensfrage. Hesse spielt mit den Gefühlen des Lesers. Er hält ihm mit der Geschichte des vereinsamten Harry Haller, der wieder zu Leben lernt, einen Spiegel vor und, ohne sich dessen bewusst zu werden, scheint der Leser etwas zu erlangen, etwas aus dieser Geschichte zu lernen. Kennzeichnend für das Werk sind die miteinander verknüpften Motive und Themen, die an verschiedenen Stellen der Erzählung immer wieder auftauchen und das Ineinanderfließen von Traum und Realität. Die drei verschiedenen Erzählhaltungen sollen es dem Leser ermöglichen, die Lebenskrise Hallers aus drei verschiedenen Perspektiven zu beleuchten46. Gerade in diesen Erzählhaltungen werden dann auch die verschiedenen Erzähler und die Metafiktion sichtbar. Diese ist also deutlich im Tractat vom Steppenwolf sichtbar, die dem Leser und auch Haller selbst einen Einblick auf seine Charakterisierung gibt. Durch diese Analyse ermöglicht man dem Leser nämlich die Prozesse besser verstehen zu können, wieso Haller auf verschiedene Weisen reagiert und wieso er ist, wie er eben ist. Sie versucht die Grenze zwischen der Fiktion und der Realität zu verwischen, was man auch am Ende im magischen Theater sieht. Ist alles was passiert echt, oder geschieht dies nur in Hallers Kopf? Diese Frage steht offen und der Leser darf sich in diesem Fall seine eigene Meinung bilden.
KeywordsMultiple identity Steppenwolf identity cleavage identity crisis identity search humor
Parallel title (Croatian)Višestruki identitet i metafikcija u romanu Hermanna Hessea „Stepski vuk“
Parallel title (English)The multiple identity and the metafiction in Hermann Hesse's novel “Steppenwolf"
Committee MembersZaneta Sambunjak (committee chairperson)
Tomislav Zelić (committee member)
Anita Pavić Pintarić (committee member)
GranterSveučilište u Zadru
Lower level organizational unitsOdjel za germanistiku
PlaceZadar
StateCroatia
Scientific field, discipline, subdisciplineHUMANISTIC SCIENCES
Philology
Theory and History of Literature
Study programme typeuniversity
Study levelundergraduate
Study programmeGerman Language and Literature (double major)
Academic title abbreviationuniv. bacc. philol. germ.
Genreundergraduate thesis
Language German
Defense date2016-10-04
Parallel abstract (Croatian)
"Stepski vuk" je jedno od najznačajnijih djela Hermanna Hessea, koji je na početku objavljivanja ponajviše izazvao odbijanje, ali je kasnije postalo jednim od omiljenijih štiva - posebice kod mladih ljudi 70-ih godina 20. stoljeća. "Stepski vuk" je gotovo (pa) autobiografsko djelo tada skoro pedesetogodišnjega Hermanna Hessea, jer je u ovom romanu obradio svoju duhovnu krizu . U "Stepskom vuku", Harry Haller je uhvaćen u sukobu u kojem želi pronaći "ravnotežu društvenog i osobnog identiteta", tj. ravnotežu između vlastitih potreba i potreba drugih ljudi . Kao stepski vuk, on se s jedne strane bori s vlastitom integracijom u društvo, a s druge strane, proživljava svoju individualnost. Dakle, ovdje vodeći motiv predstavlja njegov unutarnji sukob, nad kojim glavni lik pati. Njegov ga dvojni identitet u konačnici dovodi do činjenice, da on teško može savladati život između ta dva svijeta. U njemu prevladavaju dva sasvim različita sastavna dijela: vuk i čovjek – koja se uvijek raspadaju, no ipak se čine nerazdvojnima. Ovo je osnovni okidač za identitetsku krizu Harryja Hallera. U mnogim romanima, posebno u obrazovnim i razvojnim romanima, potraga za identitetom smatra se konfliktom između pojedinca i svijeta, kao i nužna integracija u središtu. Riječ je o često različitim životnim konceptima protagonista i građanstva, gdje se glavni likovi sve do kraja ne pokušavaju sjediniti. Čak i stepski vuk Haller ide svojim putem izvan zadane norme – on uči i na kraju nađe odgovor na svoje životno pitanje. Hesse se igra s osjećajima čitatelja. On im u priči o usamljenom Harryju Halleru, koji opet uči živjeti, drži zrcalo bez da su oni svjesni toga i čini se kako će nešto iz ove priče naučiti. Karakteristike ovog djela su međusobno povezani motivi i teme, koji se stalno pojavljuju na raznim mjestima u romanu, kao i ponovno spajanje snova i stvarnosti. Tri navedena različita načina pripovijedanja služe kako bi se čitateljima lakše predočile sve tru perspektive Hellerove životne krize. Upravo se u ovim pripovijedanjima uočavaju različiti pripovijedači te metafikcija. Ona je izrazito jasna u traktatu stepskog vuka te daje čitelju i samom Helleru uvid u njegovu karakterizaciju. Ova analiza omogućuje čitatelju lakše razumijevanje postupqka i zašto Heller na različite načine reagira i zašto je zapravo onakav kakav jest. Pokušava izbrisati granicu između fikcije i realnosti, što se na kraju u magičnom kazalištu može i vidjeti. Je li sve što se događalo istinito ili se sve to dešavalo samo u Hellerovoj glavi? Ovo pitanje ostaje otvoreno i čitatelj može u ovom slučaju sam stvoriti vlastito mišljenje.
Parallel abstract (English)
“Steppenwolf” is one of the most important works of Hermann Hesse, which initially provoked rejection when it was first published, but it later became one of the most popular books, especially for young people in the 70's. „Steppenwolf is basically an autobiography of Hermann Hesse, who at the time was turning fifty and was dealing with his spiritual crisis in the novel. In „Steppenwolf“, Harry Haller is caught up in a conflict in which he wants to find a balance between his personal and public life, namely the balance between his own needs and the needs of others. On the one hand as „Steppenwolf“ he struggles to integrate into society, and on the other hand, he experiences his own individuality. Hence, the leitmotif is his inner conflict, which is the main character's suffering. Ultimately, his dual identity leads to the fact that he is unable to overcome the differences between these two worlds. He is dominated by two completely different components: the wolf and the man, which are always breaking down but are inseparable. This is the main trigger for Harry Haller's identity crisis. In many novels, especially educational and developmental novels, the search for identity is considered to be a conflict between the individual and the world, as well as the necessary integration in the middle. It is about different life concepts of the protagonist and society, where the main characters try to blend into society until the end. Even Steppenwolf Haller goes his own way beyond the set norms. He comprehends, and in the end finds the answer to his vital question. Hesse is toying with the reader's emotions. In his tale about the lonely Harry Haller, who learns to live again, he holds up a mirror to the readers without them noticing it, and they seem to learn from this story. The features of this work are interrelated motifs and themes, that continually arise in the novel, as well as the blending of dreams and reality. The three different ways of narration serve as a means to easily convey all the aspects of Haller's life crisis to the reader. Notably, various narrators and metafictions are seen in these narratives. They are especially visible in the treatise of Steppenwolf and give the reader and Heller himself insight into his characterization. This analysis allows the reader to easily understand Heller's actions, his reactions in different ways, and why Heller really is the way he is. It tries to erase the boundary between fiction and reality, which in the end can be seen in a magical theater. Is everything that happened true or was it just in Heller's head? This question remains unanswered and the reader can in this case form his own opinion.
Parallel keywords (Croatian)Multiple Identität Steppenwolf Identitätsspaltung Identitätskrise Identitätssuche Humor Višestruki identitet Stepski vuk poremećaj identiteta kriza identiteta potraga za identitetom humor
Resource typetext
Access conditionAccess restricted to students and staff of home institution
Terms of usehttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:162:496088
CommitterMarta Unković