undergraduate thesis
Changes of stone tool technology in transition from Middle to Upper Paleolithic

Krešimir Vacek (2016)
Sveučilište u Zadru
Odjel za arheologiju
Metadata
TitlePromjene u litičkoj industriji na prijelazu srednjeg u gornji paleolitik
AuthorKrešimir Vacek
Mentor(s)Dario Vujević (thesis advisor)
Abstract
Tehnologija je skup primjenjivih tehnika ili procesa kojima se izrađuje željeni predmet. Tehnika je pak praktični dio tehnologije i primjenjuje se s određenom namjerom. Korištenjem određene tehnike, čovjek je sposoban izraditi unaprijed isplanirani predmet. Postoje 4 grupe po kojima pratimo nastanak i razvoj paleolitičkog kamenog alata, a one su čovjekovo djelovanje, sirovinski materijal, fizičke akcije i na kraju, izrađeni kameni alat. Čovjek je uvijek težio tome da koristiti lako obradive, ali i lako nabavljive sirovine. Najčešće su rožnjak, tuf, kremen, opsidijan i vapnenačke stijene. Iako se metode izrade odbojka unaprijed isplaniranog oblika prvi puta koriste u donjem paleolitiku, u srednjem paleolitiku se njihovo korištenje naglo povećava. Među njima je najznačajnija levaloaška metoda. Ostale metode korištene u musterijenu su diskoidna metoda, metoda izrade quina strugala, laminarna tehnika. Najzastupljeniji tipovi kamenog alata u musterijenu su strugala. Prema obliku možemo izdvojiti čak 21 tip. Ostalo oruđe čine musterijenski šiljci, noževi s hrptom te razni nazupci i udupci. Dolaskom homo sapiensa, 45 000 godina prije sadašnjosti, počinje gornji paleolitik. Industrije koje postoje u periodu dolaska nazivaju se prijelaznima jer unatoč dolasku nove vrste pokazuju elemente stapanja karakteristika musterijena i orinjasijena. Orinajsijen je prva prava gornjopaleolitička industrija. Specifična je po novim metodama koje su omogućile izradu mnogo više kamenog alata od musterijenskih metoda. To je rezultiralo većom pokretljivošću orinjasijenskih zajednica. Pojavljuju se novi tipovi: orinjasijensko sječivo, grebala na orinjasijenskom sječivu, ostala grebala i razna dubila. Iako već postoje u prijelaznim industrijama, u orinjasijenu se naglo povećava broj koštanih šiljaka. Razvoj se nastavlja u gravitijenu koji je specifičan po pojavi raznih tipova dubila što se veže uz intenzivnu obradu koštanih predmeta. Nakon njega dolazi solitrejen koji je karakterističan primjenom toplinskog postupka te lovorikim šiljcima.
KeywordsMiddle Paleolithic Upper Paleolithic stone tool technology transition Musterian transitional industries Aurignacian stone tools
Parallel title (English)Changes of stone tool technology in transition from Middle to Upper Paleolithic
Committee MembersMate Parica (committee chairperson)
Dario Vujević (committee member)
Kristina Horvat (committee member)
GranterSveučilište u Zadru
Lower level organizational unitsOdjel za arheologiju
PlaceZadar
StateCroatia
Scientific field, discipline, subdisciplineHUMANISTIC SCIENCES
Archeology
Prehistoric Archeology
Study programme typeuniversity
Study levelundergraduate
Study programmeArchaeology
Academic title abbreviationuniv. bacc. archeol.
Genreundergraduate thesis
Language Croatian
Defense date2016-09-30
Parallel abstract (English)
Technology is a composition of applicable techniques or processes which are used to create a desired object. Technique is the practical part of the technology and is used with a specific purpose. When a human is using specific techniques, he can create a pre planned object. There are four groups that we observe through occurrence and development of stone tools in Paleolithic. These groups are following: man’s activity, raw material, physical activity and finished stone tool. Man has always strived for using easily tillable raw materials, but also materials that can be acquired. Usually those were chert, tuff, flint, obsidian and limestone rocks. Although the method of pre planned shape for creating flake was firstly used in Lower Paleolithic, its usage did not increase until the period of Middle Paleolithic. The best such known method is levallois method. Other methods used in Mousterian are disc-core method, the method of creating quina scraper and laminar technique. Most frequently used types of stone tools in Mousterian are scrapers. Based on their shape, we can distinguish twenty one different types. Other tools are mostly Mousterian points, backed knifes and other miscellaneous denticulates and notches. With the occurrence of Homo sapiens 45 000 years ago starts the Upper Paleolithic. Industries in this period of occurrence are called transitional, because they show elements of merging of Mousterian and Aurignacian characteristics. Aurignacian culture is the first real Upper Paleolithic industry. It is distinguished by its new methods that enabled the creation of more stone tools than Mousterian methods, which resulted in greater mobility of Aurignacian communities. New types of tools are made: aurignacian blade, scratchings on aurignacian blade, other scratchers and burins. Although they already existed in transitional industries, the number of bone spikes increases in Aurignacian period. The development continues in Gravettian , known for appearance of different kinds of burins, which are connected to intensive treatment of bone objects. After Gravettian follows Solutrian period that is known for applying heat processes and laurel points.
Parallel keywords (Croatian)srednji paleolitik gornji paleolitik litičke industrije tranzicija musterijen prijelazne industrije orinjasijen kameni alat
Resource typetext
Access conditionOpen access
Terms of usehttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:162:306707
CommitterMarta Unković