undergraduate thesis
Commerical and settlement strategies of communities on the Eastern Adriatic coast at the transition from the Pleistocene to the Holocene

Bruno Živković (2016)
Sveučilište u Zadru
Odjel za arheologiju
Metadata
TitlePrivredno-naseobinske startegije zajednica istočne obale Jadrana na prijelazu pleistocena u holacen
AuthorBruno Živković
Mentor(s)Dario Vujević (thesis advisor)
Abstract
Razdoblje gornjeg paleolitika u Europi započinje dolaskom anatomski modernih ljudi na negostoljubivo europsko tlo. Suočeni sa surovošću ledenodobnog europskog okoliša, adaptiraju svoje ponašanje i tehnologiju novim uvjetima što dovodi do povećanja raznolikosti litičkih izrađevina. Klimatološki gledano, riječ je o razdoblju koje je obilježeno značajnim zahlađenjima koje kulminira tijekom posljednjeg glacijalnog maksimuma (LGM) prije približno 18 000 godina. Zahlađenje mijenja sliku europskog okoliša. Zbog širenja ledenog pokrova dolazi do pada razine mora te oslobađanja velikih prostranstava uz Sredozemno more. Jedno od tih prostranstava je i velika Jadranska ravnica. Ispresijecana mnogobrojnim rijekama koje svoju vodu crpe iz dinaridskih i alpskih glečera, bila je granica toplijeg juga i periglacijalne Europe, dok je njezin uglavnom stepski i manjim dijelom šumski okoliš bio stanište mnogobrojnim životinjama koje su činile Jadransku dolinu izuzetno privlačnom lovačko–sakupljačkim zajednicama. Tranziciju kasnog pleistocena u holocen označava velika promjena u klimi u obliku globalnog zatopljenja koje dovodi do otapanja ledenjaka, što za posljedicu ima značajni rast morske razine koji započinje prije otprilike 12 500 godina prije sadašnjosti te kroz sljedećih 3 500 godina Jadranska dolina postepeno nestaje pod morem. Osim promjena u razini mora, rast temperature dovodi do promjene u flori i fauni koja se očituje u rastu šumskog pokrivača uz kojeg je vezana i karakteristična fauna, sitnija od one koja je nastanjivala prostranstva Jadranske doline. Sve spomenute promjene u okolišu zahtijevaju promjenu u ponašanju i adaptaciju novih vještina koje su lovačko - skupljačke zajednice morale prisvojiti kako bi uspješno preživjele u novom okruženju. Spomenuta prilagodba vidljiva je u promjeni litičkog materijala koji više odgovara lovu na sitniju divljač, što dovodi do prevlasti mikrolitskih alatki koje dostižu vrhunac upotrebe tijekom razdoblja mezolitika. Mezolitik označava novi stupanj u razvoju ljudskih zajednica, a odnosi se na lovačko-sakupljačke zajednice koje su se prilagodile novom, toplijem, resursima ispunjenijem okolišu. Na prostoru istočne obale Jadrana tijekom tranzicije epigravetijena u mezolitik ne dolazi do velike promjene u naseobinskim strategijama lovačko-sakupljačkih zajednica. Najveći broj nalaza u oba perioda potječe iz pećina, dok su nalazišta na otvorenome rjeđa pojava. Isto tako, mezolitičke zajednice uglavnom se koriste istim mjestima kao i epigravetijenske zajednice. Činjenica da zajednice biraju ista mjesta koja naseljavaju sličnim tempom, govori o sličnom radijusu kretanja i sličnom iskorištavanju prostora. Jedino je na početku mezolitika ekonomski radijus smanjen jer sada ogromne ravnice sjevernog Jadrana zamjenjuje morska površina. Podatci o prikupljanju sirovina tijekom razdoblja mezolitika potvrđuju smanjenu mobilnost zajednica. Dok je na području Dalmacije tijekom mezolitika vidljiva dominacija lokalnih izvora sirovina te trend opadanja prethodno prisutne sirovine iz udaljenih krajeva, na istarskom području dolazi do drugačije situacije. Naime, tijekom gornjopaleolitičkog perioda, na istarskom području dominiraju sirovine iz egzogenih i regionalnih te manjim dijelom iz lokalnih izvora, a tijekom mezolitika i dalje prevladavaju sirovine iz regionalnih izvora. Međutim, zabilježen je i značajan porast sirovina lokalnog podrijetla, dok je egzogeni materijal odsutan. Prehranu zajednica istočnojadranske obale tijekom razdoblja kasnog gornjeg paleolitika i mezolitika, koja se sastoji uglavnom od velikih i srednjih kopitara, upotpunjuju i manji sisavci, a tijekom razdoblja mezolitika razni kopneni i morski puževi te školjke i uglavnom manje riblje vrste.
KeywordsHolocene Pleistocene Paleolithic Mesolithic hunter gatherer communities commercial and settlement strategies climate change in the Pleistocene climate change in the Holocene
Parallel title (English)Commerical and settlement strategies of communities on the Eastern Adriatic coast at the transition from the Pleistocene to the Holocene
Committee MembersMate Parica (committee chairperson)
Dario Vujević (committee member)
Kristina Horvat (committee member)
GranterSveučilište u Zadru
Lower level organizational unitsOdjel za arheologiju
PlaceZadar
StateCroatia
Scientific field, discipline, subdisciplineHUMANISTIC SCIENCES
Archeology
Prehistoric Archeology
Study programme typeuniversity
Study levelundergraduate
Study programmeArchaeology
Academic title abbreviationuniv. bacc. archeol.
Genreundergraduate thesis
Language Croatian
Defense date2016-09-30
Parallel abstract (English)
The era of Upper Paleolithic in Europe begins with the arrival of anatomically modern humans on to the unhospitable European soil. Confronted with the brutality of the Ice-age European environment, they adapt their behaviour and technology to new conditions, which results in increased diversification of lithic artefacts. From the climatological perspective, it is and era characterized by significant cooling periods which culminates during the last glacial maximum (LGM), approximately 18 000 years ago. The cooling changes the image of the European environment. Due to the expansion of the ice cover there is a decrease in sea level and vast expanses along the Mediterrranean sea are freed up. One of these expanses is the Great Adriatic Plain. Crisscrossed by many rivers which draw their water from Dinaric and alpine glaciers, it was the border between the warmer south and pre-glacial Europe, while its mainly steppe-like, and to a lesser degree, forest environment was the habitat of numerous animals which made the Adriatic Plain extremely attractive for hunter-gathering communities. The transition from late Pleistocene into Holocene is marked by a major chage in clime, in the shape of global warming that leads to melting of the glaciers, which consequently results in a signficant growth of sea level starting approximately 12 500 year ago, and in the next 3 500 years the Adriatic Plain is gradually submerged under the sea. Besides changes in sea level, the rise in temeperature leads to changes in the flora and fauna which is manifested in the spread of forest cover characterized by specfic fauna, smaller than the one which inhabited the vastness of the Adriatic Plain. All the mentioned shifts in the environment demand a change in the behavior and adaptation of new skills which the hunter-gathering communities had to embrace to successfully survive in the new surroundings. The mentioned adaptation is visible in the change of lithic material that is better suited for hunting small game, which leads to dominance of micro-lithic tools that reach their apex during the Mesolithic era. The Mesolithic signifies a new degree in the evolution of human communities, and it is related to hunter-gathering communities which have adapted to a new, warmer environment, more abundant with resources. On the territory of the eastern Adriatic coast during the transition of Epigravettien into Mesolithic there is no major change in the settlement strategies of hunter-gathering communities. The largest number of findings in both peridos comes from caves, while the sites out in the open are rare. Likewise, Mesolithic communities mainly use the same sites as Epigravettien ones. The fact that the communities choose the same sites which they habitate at a similar rate, tells of a similar movement radius and a similar space utilization. However, at the start of the Mesolithic period, the commercial radius is decreased, because now the great plains of the northern Adriatic are covered by sea. The data on raw materials acquistion during the Mesolithic period confirm the reduced mobility of communities. While, during the Mesolithic period, the territory of Damlatia shows a dominance in local sources of raw materials and the trend of reduction in previously present raw materials from distant regions, a different situation unfolds in the Istrian area. In fact, during the Upper Paleolithic period, the Istrian area is dominated by raw materials from exogenous and regional and, to a lesser extent, local sources, with the regional sources still dominating during the Mesolithic. However, a signficant increase in raw materials of local origin is registered, while the exogenous material is absent. The diet of communities on the eastern Adriatic coast during the late Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic, consisting mainly of large and medium ungulates, is complemented by smaller mammals, and during the Mesolithic period, by various terrestrial and sea snails as well as shellfish and mainly smaller fish species.
Parallel keywords (Croatian)holocen pleistocen paleolitik mezolitik lovačko skupljačke zajednice privredno naseobinske strategije klimatske promjene u pleistocenu klimatske promjene u holocenu
Resource typetext
Access conditionOpen access
Terms of usehttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:162:525711
CommitterMarta Unković