master's thesis
The Causality of French Revolution and Philosophical Thoughts of the 18th and 19th Centuries

Jurica Martinez (2016)
University of Zadar
Department of History
Metadata
TitleKauzalnost Francuske revolucije i filozofskih misli 18. i 19. st.
AuthorJurica Martinez
Mentor(s)Mateo Bratanić (thesis advisor)
Abstract
Ideja ovog rada je pokazati kauzalan odnos između povijesnih činjenica Francuske revolucije i filozofskih misli 18. i 19. stoljeća. Promatranja ovog odnosa bazirana su na filozofskim konceptima Voltairea, Rousseaua i Hegela. U suštini, Voltaireove ideje rojalizma, deizma i tolerancije uočljive su do prva faze Revolucije tj. do prvog ustava 1791. g. kada će francuski građani biti podijeljeni na aktive i pasivne. Samim sankcioniranjem ustava iz 1791. g. ostvarit će se Voltaireova ideja prema kojoj on smatra da „ljudi jesu jednaki kao ljudi, ali nikako ne mogu biti jednaki prema svojim materijalnim ili socijalnim položajima.“ Odnosno svi su postali „slobodni“ samo su neki, ovisno o imovinskom cenzusu, imali prava glasa (aktivni) dok drugi to isto prava nisu imali (pasivni). Ideju vjerske tolerancije Voltaire nastoji proklamirati u kontekstu gospodarskog razvoja dajući analogan primjer s Engleskom. Rousseauov koncept društva izražen je nakon drugog francuskog ustava iz 1793. g. gdje svi ljudi, barem nominalno, postaju jednaki pred zakonom neovisno o njihovom socijalnom ili imovinskom cenzusu. Ovakav odnos između građana i zakon bit će izražen u Deklaraciji o pravima čovjeka i građanina. Totalitarnost ideje o nužnosti slobode svih građana Francuske rezultirat će terorom. Tako će Društveni ugovor poslužiti predstavnicima Revolucije da nesmetano provode vlastite koncepte uređenja novonastale Republike. Hegelovo shvaćanje Francuske revolucije bazirano je kroz dijalektiku te njegovo poimanje države i slobode. Stoga će Revolucija biti shvaćena kao sintetizirajući moment u povijesnom procesu nakon kojega država postaje najveći stupanj osvještenja ljudske slobode. S druge pak strane, Hegel uviđa i paradoks Revolucije prema kojoj put prema slobodi vodi preko giljotine.
KeywordsFrench Revolution Causality Voltaire Rousseau Hegel
Parallel title (English)The Causality of French Revolution and Philosophical Thoughts of the 18th and 19th Centuries
Committee MembersSanda Uglešić (committee chairperson)
Mateo Bratanić (committee member)
Milorad Pavić (committee member)
GranterUniversity of Zadar
Lower level organizational unitsDepartment of History
PlaceZadar
StateCroatia
Scientific field, discipline, subdisciplineHUMANISTIC SCIENCES
History
Theory of History and Methods of Historical Science
Study programme typeuniversity
Study levelgraduate
Study programmeHistory
Academic title abbreviationmag. hist.
Genremaster's thesis
Language Croatian
Defense date2016-06-14
Parallel abstract (English)
The aim of this paper is to show the causal relationship between the historical facts of the French Revolution and the philosophical thoughts of the 18th and the 19th century. The observation of this relationship is based on the philosophical concepts of Voltaire, Rousseau and Hegel.In essence, Voltaire's ideas of royalism, deism and tolerance were noticeablein the first phase of the Revolution,that is after the adoption of the first constitution of 1791, when French citizens were divided introactive and passive. The sanctioning of the constitution of 1791 actualized his idea that „men are equal as men, but it no way can they be equal with regards to their material or social status“.In other words, all citizens became „free“, while some of them(based on their property) had the right to vote (active), others did not (passive). Voltaire tried to proclaim the idea of religious tolerance in the context of economic development, giving the analogous example of England. Rousseau's concept of society was accomplished after the second French constitution of 1793, when all people, at least nominally, became equal before the law, regardless of their social or property census.This kind of a relationship between citizens and the law was presented in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. The totalitarity of the idea of the necessity of freedom for all French citizens resulted in terror. The Social Contract was used by representatives of the Revolution in order to freely implement their own concepts of arranging the newly established Republic. Hegel's understanding of the French Revolution was based on dialectics and his understanding of the state and freedom. Thus, on the one hand, the Revolution was perceived as the synthesizing moment in the historical process after which the state became the highest level of the progress of the consciousness of freedom. On the other hand, Hegel also recognized the paradox of the Revolution in which the road towards freedom includes the guillotine.
Parallel keywords (Croatian)Francuska revolucija kauzalnost Voltaire Rousseau Hegel
Resource typetext
Access conditionOpen access
Terms of usehttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:162:272818
CommitterMarta Unković