master's thesis
Franciscan Sermons in the Middle Ages

Mateo Ćurčija (2017)
University of Zadar
Department of History
Metadata
TitleFranjevačke propovijedi u srednjem vijeku
AuthorMateo Ćurčija
Mentor(s)Valentina Šoštarić (thesis advisor)
Abstract
Crkva je u razvijenom srednjem vijeku bila zahvaćena raznim negativnim praksama, sve je aktivnije sudjelovala u ekonomskim i političkim procesima te je upala u krizu evanđeoskog poslanja. Kao odgovor na takvo stanje, u 11., 12., i 13. stoljeću javlja se reformni pokret i pojavljuju se novi crkveni redovi koji teže izvornom evanđeoskom siromaštvu i pokori (vita apostolica). Tako i Sveti Franjo Asiški s drugovima, u Asizu u Italiji, 1209. osniva red Male braće (franjevci, Manja braća). Uz potporu Svete Stolice, velikaša i svjetovnih vlasti franjevci se vrlo brzo šire na sve strane svijeta. Uređuju hijerarhiju i funkcioniranje reda te organiziraju područja djelovanja. Prvu provinciju Hungariae na hrvatskom području je osnovao Sveti Franjo 1217. Iz nje se 1232. izdvojila primorska provincija Sclavoniae S. Seraphini, dok se sjeverni i istočni ostatak provincije 1239. spojio s ugarskom Ostrogonskom provincijom u Provinciu regni Hungariae. Franjevačka duhovnost i Pravilo reda sastojalo se od jednostavnog opsluživanja Evanđelja u potpunom siromaštvu i pokori, brizi za najugroženije slojeve društva te vlastitom uzdržavanju od rada ili milostinje. Način opsluživanja Franjinog Pravila je često bio kamen spoticanja braće, pa se tako red podijelio u više struja. Reformatori ili spiritualci su se zalagali za doslovno opsluživanje Pravila i potpuno siromaštvo, a konventualci za metaforiĉko opsluživanje i pravo na materijalno posjedovanje. U 14. i 15. stoljeću djelovale su četiri struje: konventualci, umjereni reformatori, radikalni reformatori i heretici ili fratičeli. Opservatni i konventualci su se razdvojili 1517. godine. Franjevačka svakodnevnica, samostanski život i pastoralne dužnosti su bili propisno uređeni. U vrlo kratkom vremenu braća preuzimaju sve važnije crkvene dužnosti, a posebno se ističu kao: propovjednici, ispovjednici, misionari, inkvizitori i širitelji novih pobožnosti. Temeljna franjevačka pastoralna funkcija je bila propovijedanje. Franjevci napuštaju propovjednička umijeća i pravila te se zauzimaju za pučki stil prikladan slušateljstvu. Njihove propovijedi su bile: jednostavne, razumljive, iskrene, slikovite, izravne, zabavne i poučne. Propovijedanje je bilo usko povezano s izgradnjom i smještajem samostana, sakramentom ispovijedi i misijskom djelatnošću. Propovijedi su najčešće pratile trodijelnu strukturu. Uvijek su bile u skladu s crkvenom godinom, blagdanima ili raznim prigodama. Središnje teme su bili poroci i vrline određenog vremena i slušateljstva, a primarna svrha je uvijek bila pokajanje, pokora i obraćenje slušatelja. Propovijedi su održavane raznolikom slušateljstvu, na raznim mjestima i u različito vrijeme. Postupnim uvođenjem studija u red, propovijedi su postajale otmjenije i u skladu sa sveučilišnim umijećima. Budući propovjednici su se morali obrazovati i dobiti dopuštenje generalnog ministra reda. U razvijenom srednjem vijeku izlaze razne knjige, zbirke i priručnici korisni za propovjednike. Od svog osnutka pa sve do novog vijeka franjevački propovjednici su ostvarili jako dobre rezultate diljem Europe, pa tako i u Hrvatskoj i okolnim zemljama. Svojim radom će ostvariti, prema mnogim povjesničarima, obnovu Crkve i bitno utjecati na duhovnost, pobožnost, običaje i kulturu pojedinca i zajednice.
KeywordsDeveloped Middle Ages Croatia Saint Francis of Assisi Franciscans preaching sermons preachers
Parallel title (English)Franciscan Sermons in the Middle Ages
Committee MembersMladen Ančić (committee chairperson)
Serđo Dokoza (committee member)
Valentina Šoštarić (committee member)
GranterUniversity of Zadar
Lower level organizational unitsDepartment of History
PlaceZadar
StateCroatia
Scientific field, discipline, subdisciplineHUMANISTIC SCIENCES
History
Medieval Croatian and World History
Study programme typeuniversity
Study levelgraduate
Study programmeHistory
Academic title abbreviationmag. hist.
Genremaster's thesis
Language Croatian
Defense date2017-05-16
Parallel abstract (English)
In the developed Middle Ages, the church had been affected by various negative practices and increasingly involved in economic and political processes while falling into crisis of the Gospel mission. In response to such a situation, in the 11th, 12th and 80 13th centuries had been appeared a reform movement and new church orders which reverted back to the original evangelical poverty and penance (vita apostolica). In the city of Assisi in Italy, Saint Francis of Assisi along with his companions established order Little brothers in 1209 (Franciscans, Smaller brothers). With the support from Holy See, nobles and secular authorities, the Franciscans spread very rapidly all over the world. They edited the hierarchy, order function and organized areas of action. The first province Hungariae in the Croatian territory was founded by Saint Francis in 1217. Out of it emerged the seaside province of Sclavoniae S. Seraphini in 1232, while the northern and eastern remnants of the province were merged with the Ugrian Ostrogon Province in Provincia regni Hungariae 1239. The Franciscan Spirituality and the Rule of Order consisted of the simple Gospel service in total poverty and penance, care for the most endangered society class and self-reliance on labor or mercy. The service of the Franciscan Rule was often a stone of stinging for brothers, so order had been splited into several groups. Reformers and spiritualists were arguing in favor of literal serving of the Rule and total poverty, while the Conventives strived towards metaphorical service and the right of material possession. Four currents were active in the 14th and 15th centuries: conventives, moderate reformers, radical reformers and heretics or Fraticelli. Observants and Conventives had separated in 1517. Franciscan everyday life, monastic life and pastoral duties were properly regulated. In a very short period of time, brothers took on more important ecclesiastical duties; in particular they served as preachers, confessors, inquisitors and spreaders of new devotion. The fundamental Franciscan pastoral function was preaching. Franciscans abandoned preaching skills and rules and took on the language style appropriate for listeners. Sermons were: simple, understandable, honest, picturesque, direct, entertaining and instructive. Preaching was closely related to the construction and accommodation of the monastery, the sacrament of confession and missionary activity. Sermons most often followed a three-part structure. They were always in accordance with church year, feasts or various occasions. Main topics were vices and virtues of a certain time and certain audience, but the primary purpose was repentance, penance and conversion of a listener. Sermons were held in various places and at different times, and audience was always different. With gradual introduction of studies into the Order, sermons became more elegant and in accordance with university studies which meant future preachers had to be educated and given permission of the General Minister of the Order. Preachers used various books, protocols and manuals useful for sermons. Across Europe, but also in Croatia, many preachers distinguished themselves and achieved great results. According to opinion of many historians, The Little Brothers will accomplish the spiritual renewal of the Church and have an important influence on the spirituality, devotion, customs and culture of individual and community.
Parallel keywords (Croatian)razvijeni srednji vijek Hrvatska Sveti Franjo Asiški franjevci propovijedanje propovijedi propovjednici
Resource typetext
Access conditionAccess restricted to students and staff of home institution
Terms of usehttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:162:944120
CommitterMarta Unković