doctoral thesis
Middle Podravina in the time of Worl War II and post-war period (1941-1948)

Vladimir Šadek (2016)
Sveučilište u Zadru
Metadata
TitleSredišnja Podravina u vrijeme Drugoga svjetskog rata i poraća (1941.-1948.)
AuthorVladimir Šadek
Mentor(s)Zlatko Begonja
Abstract
Nakon kratkog travanjskog rata 1941. godine Kraljevina Jugoslavija prestala je postojati, te nastaje Nezavisna Država Hrvatska kojoj na čelo dolaze ustaše na čelu s Antom Pavelićem. Pripadnici ustaške organizacije vratili su se iz Italije, a među njima i Podravci Martin Nemec i Mijo Bzik. Bzik je kao blizak Pavelićev suradnik bio više vezan uz rad na državnoj razini, no Nemec je tad postao povjerenik za grad i kotar Koprivnicu. Na području Đurđevca ovu ulogu je dobio Vladimir Sabolić, kasniji veliki župan župa Posavje i Bilogora. Kod Koprivnice se ubrzo osnovao logor Danica, prvi koncentracijski logor u NDH, te dolazi do progona neistomišljenika. Prema rasnim zakonima uhićuju se Židovi i Romi, ali i brojni Srbi te Hrvati protivnici novog režima. Ustaše su na svoju stranu pokušali pridobiti članove HSS-a, no u Podravini se većina od njih odlučila na politiku čekanja kao i predsjednik stranke Vladko Maček. Ustaše nisu uspjele u naumu da pridobiju najutjecajnijeg podravskog HSS-ovca Mihovila Pavleka Miškinu, te dolazi do njegovog uhićenja. Miškina je 1942. ubijen u logoru Stara Gradiška, što doprinosi približavanju čelnika HSS-a koprivničkog kotara partizanskom pokretu. Mnogi od njih postaju utjecajni u HRSS-u, a Franjo Gaži iz Hlebina 1944. postaje i predsjednikom izvršnog odbora ove organizacije te 1945. i potpredsjednikom hrvatske Vlade. Dio HSS-ovaca koji su podržali ustaški režim 1943. postaju organizatori Bijele garde, vojne formacije koja se posebno razvila u Prekodravlju i đurđevačkoj Podravini. Do pred kraj rata Podravci se nisu masovnije uključivali u partizanski pokret, koji je značajnije uporište imao u selima Kalnika i Bilogore s većinskim srpskim stanovništvom. No unatoč tome došlo je do nekoliko ozbiljnijih sukoba između vojnih snaga NDH i NOP-a. Posebno su glasovite bile bitke za Koprivnicu 1943. i 1944. Osnivanjem Podravskog partizanskog odreda 1944. dolazi do masovnijeg uključivanja Podravaca u NOV, te odred ubrzo prerasta u Podravsku brigadu „Mihovil Pavlek Miškina“. Kako se približavao kraj rata brojni Podravci uključeni u vojne postrojbe NDH povlačili su se pred naletom partizana. Mnogi su uhićeni kod Bleiburga, te su bili sudionici Križnog puta. Mnogi ustaški dužnosnici su nakon dolaska komunista na vlast uhićeni te im je suđeno, a mnogi su se mjesecima skrivali od nove vlasti. Nakon rata su na području Podravine djelovale organizacije križara, koje su na gerilski način pokušavale nastaviti borbu. Ustaška emigracija pokušavala je u svojoj najznačajnijoj poslijeratnoj akciji „Plan deseti travanj“ iz Mađarske preko područja Podravine prebacivati svoje ljude, no akcija je bila neuspješna te je UDB-a zarobila sve prebačene emigrante, među kojima i bivšeg velikog župana Vladimira Sabolića. Po završetku rata komunisti su svim raspoloživim metodama nastojali učvrstiti vlast, a formalno su to uspjeli poslije izbora 1945. nakon kojih je Ustavotvorna skupština usvojila Ustav FNRJ. Nakon rata pokrenut je niz revolucionarnih mjera koje su uzrokovale osiromašenje podravskog sela, te je konfiscirana i nacionalizirana privatna imovina. Komunističke vlasti su bile naročito represivne u odnosu prema Katoličkoj crkvi, koja je imala široku podršku stanovništva i čije su vjerske manifestacije redovito okupljale velik broj Podravaca. Učvršćivanje partijske vlasti pomogla je organizacija HRSS-a, no njeni se ljudi nisu slagali s raznim mjerama partije na selu. Zato je partija nastojala marginalizirati HRSS i zauzeti sve poluge vlasti u Podravini. Nakon sukoba sa SSSR-om 1948. velika većina Podravaca podržala je Tita i Centralni komitet KP-a.
KeywordsPodravina Koprivnica and Đurđevac districts World War II 1941-1945 Post-war period 1945-1948 Ustashas Communists HSS
Parallel title (English)Middle Podravina in the time of Worl War II and post-war period (1941-1948)
Committee MembersAnte Bralić (committee chairperson)
Zlatko Begonja (committee member)
Tado Oršolić (committee member)
GranterSveučilište u Zadru
PlaceZadar
StateCroatia
Scientific field, discipline, subdisciplineHUMANISTIC SCIENCES
History
UDK94(497.5)
GEOGRAPHY. BIOGRAPHY. HISTORY
History of Croatia
Study programme typeuniversity
Study levelpostgraduate
Study programmeAdriatic – a Link Among the Continents
Academic title abbreviationdr. sc.
Genredoctoral thesis
Language Croatian
Defense date2016-12-09
Parallel abstract (English)
After a brief April war in year 1941, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia ceased to exist, and Independent State of Croatia (NDH) was founded, so Ustashas led by Ante Pavelic came to the head of the state. Members of the Ustasha organization returned from Italy, amongst them Martin Nemec and Mijo Bzik from Podravina as well. Bzik, as a close associate of Pavelic, was more related to the affairs of the state, but Nemec then became the commissioner of the city and district Koprivnica. In the area of Đurđevac this role got Vladimir Sabolić, who later became the great County prefect of the Counties Posavje and Bilogora. The Camp Danica was soon established near Koprivnica, the first concentration camp in the NDH, which led to the persecution of dissenters. Jews and Gypsies were arrested according to the racial laws, as well as many Serbs and Croats opponents of the new regime. Ustashas tried to win over the members of the HSS to their side, but in Podravina the most of them decided for the policy of waiting as their party president Vlatko Macek had done. Ustashas’ plan to gain the support of the most influential HSS member in Podravina called Mihovil Pavlek Miškina failed, so they arrested him. Miškina was killed in year 1942 in camp Stara Gradiska, which contributed to approaching of the leaders of the HSS in Koprivnica district to the Partisan movement. Many of them became influential in the HRSS, while Franjo Gaži from Hlebine became the president of the executive board of this organization in year 1944, and vice-president of the Croatian government in year 1945. A part of HSS members who supported the Ustasha regime became in year 1943 the organizers of “Bijela garda”, a military formation that has particularly developed in Prekodravlje and Đurđevac area. Up to the end of the war, people from Podravina were not getting massively involved in the Partisan movement, which had a significant stronghold in the villages of Kalnik and Bilogora where the majority of the population was Serbian. Despite of that, there were a few serious conflicts between military forces of NDH and NOP. The battles for Koprivnica in years 1943 and 1944 were especially famous. By establishing of Podravina partisan detachment in year 1944 led to the mass inclusion of people from Podravina in the NOV, and therefore detachment soon outgrows to Podravina brigade "Mihovil Pavlek Miškina". Towards the end of the war, numerous people from Podravina included in NDH military troops retreated before the onslaught of partisans. Many of them were arrested by Bleiburg, and were the participants of “Križni put” (Way of the Cross). After the Communists came to power a lot of Ustasha officials were arrested and put on trial, and many of them were hiding from the new power for months. After the war, organizations of Crusaders were acting at the area of Podravina trying to continue the battle with the guerrilla type of struggle. Post-war Ustasha emigration tried to transfer their people from Hungary through the area of Podravina in the most significant action of after war Ustasha emigration called "Plan deseti travanj" (Plan of April the 10th), which was unsuccessful so state intelligence service (UDBA) captured all transferred emigrants, among which as well the great County prefect Vladimir Sabolić. After the end of the war communists tried to consolidate their power by all available methods, and they formally managed to do this after elections in year 1945 after which Constituent assembly adopted the Constitution of FNRJ. After the war was initiated a series of revolutionary measures which have caused the pauperization of Podravinas village, and also were confiscated and nationalized private assets. Communist authorities were particularly repressive in relation to Catholic Church, which had a wide support of inhabitants and whose religious events were regularly gathering a major number of people from Podravina. Fixing authority of the Communist party was helped by HRSS organization, but whose people did not agree with a variety of measures of Communist party in the village. That's why the Communist party tried to marginalize the HRSS and take the all the levers of power in Podravina. After the conflict with SSSR in year 1948 the great majority of people from Podravina have supported Tito and Central committee of KP.
Parallel keywords (Croatian)Podravina kotari Koprivnica i Đurđevac Drugi svjetski rat 1941. – 1945. Poslijeratno razdoblje 1945. – 1948. ustaše komunisti HSS
ExtentIX, 437 str. ; 30 cm
Versionaccepted version
Resource typetext
Access conditionOpen access
Terms of usehttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
Noteaccepted version
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:162:608980
CommitterMarta Unković